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The primary goal of judicial interpretation of statutes is to give effect to the intent of the Legislature. Farrington v Total Petroleum, Inc, 442 Mich. 201, 212; 501 N.W.2d 76 (1993). The first criterion in determining intent is the specific language of the statute. House Speaker v State Administrative Bd, 441 Mich. 547, 567; 495 N.W.2d 539 (1993). The Legislature is presumed to have intended the meaning it plainly expressed. McFarlane v McFarlane, 223 Mich. App. 119, 123; 566 N.W.2d 297 (1997). Judicial construction of a statute is not permitted where the plain and ordinary meaning of the language is clear. Dep't of Treasury v Comerica Bank, 201 Mich. App. 318, 322; 506 N.W.2d 283 (1993).


Generally, when a statute creates a new right or imposes a new duty, the remedy provided by the statute to enforce the right, or for nonperformance of the duty, is exclusive. Pompey v General Motors Corp, 385 Mich. 537, 552; 189 N.W.2d 243 (1971).


Where the common law provides no right to relief, but the right to relief is created by statute, a plaintiff has no private cause of action to enforce the right unless (1) ...

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