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An organization may bring an action on behalf of its members if (1) the individual members would have standing to sue; the organization's purpose relates to the interests being vindicated; and (3) the claims asserted do not require the participation of individual members. Ecological Rights Found. v. Pac. Lumber Co., 230 F.3d 1141, 1147 (9th Cir. 2000). The individual members have standing if they can demonstrate that an actual or threatened injury exists, which is fairly traceable to the challenged action, and that such injury is likely to be redressed by a favorable decision. 


The Court has recognized that an association may have standing to assert the claims of its members even where it has suffered no injury from the challenged activity, e.g., Warth v. Seldin, 422 U. S. 490, 511; National Motor Freight Assn. v. United States, 372 U. S. 246 (1963). In Warth v. Seldin, supra, the court stated: 'Even in the absence of injury to itself, an association may have standing solely as the representative of its members. . . . The association must allege that its members, or any one of them, are suffering immediate or threatened injury as a ...

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