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The Art. III 'case or controversy' limitation requires that a federal court act only to redress injury that fairly can be traced to the challenged action of a defendant, and not solely to some third party. No principle is more fundamental to the judiciary's proper role in our system of government than the constitutional limitation of federal court jurisdiction to actual cases or controversies. See Flast v. Cohen, 392 U. S. 83, 392 U. S. 95 (1968). The concept of standing is part of this limitation. Unlike other associated doctrines, for example, that which restrains federal courts from deciding political questions, standing 'focuses on the party seeking to get his complaint before a federal court, and not on the issues he wishes to have adjudicated.' Id. at 392 U. S. 99. The standing question, in its Art. III aspect, 'is whether the plaintiff has 'alleged such a personal stake in the outcome of the controversy' as to warrant his invocation of federal court jurisdiction and to justify exercise of the court's remedial powers on his behalf.' Warth v. Seldin, 422 U. S. 490, 422 U. S. 498-499 (1975) (emphasis in original). In sum, when a plaintiff's ...

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