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 Commingling of funds occurs when the same account is used to deposit fees and pay for expenses for both personal and business use. See Iowa Supreme Ct. Bd. of Prof'l Ethics & Conduct v. Sunleaf, 588 N.W.2d 126, 126 (Iowa 1999) (discussing attorney trust account commingling). Activities such as using corporate funds for personal purposes, mixing corporate and personal accounts, and commingling assets are factors weighed under this element. See 1 Fletcher, Fletcher Cyclopedia of the Law of Corporations § 41.50.


In C. Mac Chambers Co., 412 N.W.2d at 598, the court specifically noted the facts that individual obligations of the family were routinely paid by the corporation and that family finances were not separate from corporate accounts as persuasive in finding the individual personally liable. In Briggs Transportation. Co., an owner failed to deposit proceeds into the corporate account and would use corporate funds to pay personal expenses. 262 N.W.2d at 810 ('Corporate funds were not segregated.'). 'Single entities do not pay their left hand with their right unless the exchange has little to no actual consequences . . . .' Tyson Fresh Meats, Inc. v. Lauer Ltd., L.L.C., 918 F. Supp. ...

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