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See also Exclusionary rule. In the Weeks v. United States, 232 U. S. 383 (1914) case, the Court 'for the first time' held that, 'in a federal prosecution, the Fourth Amendment barred the use of evidence secured through an illegal search and seizure.' The Court has ever since required of federal law officers a strict adherence to that command which the Court has held to be a clear, specific, and constitutionally required -- even if judicially implied -- deterrent safeguard without insistence upon which the Fourth Amendment would have been reduced to 'a form of words.' Holmes, J., Silverthorne Lumber Co. v. United States, 251 U. S. 385, 251 U. S. 392 (1920). It meant, quite simply, that 'conviction by means of unlawful seizures and enforced confessions . . . should find no sanction in the judgments of the courts . . . ,' Weeks v. United States, supra, at 232 U. S. 392, and that such evidence 'shall not be used at all.' Silverthorne Lumber Co. v. United States, supra, at 251 U. S. 392. 


In Byars v. United States, 273 U. S. 28 (1927), a unanimous Court declared that 'the ...

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