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See also Suspicionless checkpoint searches. See also Fourth Amendment (suspicionless seizures). Indianapolis v. Edmond, 531 U. S. 32 (2000) involved a checkpoint at which police stopped vehicles to look for evidence of drug crimes committed by occupants of those vehicles. After stopping a vehicle at the checkpoint, police would examine (from outside the vehicle) the vehicle's interior; they would walk a drug-sniffing dog around the exterior; and, if they found sufficient evidence of drug (or other) crimes, they would arrest the vehicle's occupants. 531 U. S., at 35. The Court found that police had set up this checkpoint primarily for general 'crime control' purposes, i.e., 'to detect evidence of ordinary criminal wrongdoing.' Id., at 41. The court noted that the stop was made without individualized suspicion. And it held that the Fourth Amendment forbids such a stop, in the absence of special circumstances. Id., at 44.

However, if a stop's primary law enforcement purpose is not to determine whether a vehicle's occupants were committing a crime, but to ask vehicle occupants, as members of the public, for their help in providing information about a crime in all likelihood committed by others Edmond does ...

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