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Official conduct that does not “compromise any legitimate interest in privacy” is not a search subject to the Fourth Amendment. Any interest in possessing contraband cannot be deemed “legitimate,” and thus, governmental conduct that only reveals the possession of contraband “compromises no legitimate privacy interest.” The expectation “that certain facts will not come to the attention of the authorities” is not the same as an interest in “privacy that society is prepared to consider reasonable.”

In United States v. Place, 462 U.S. 696 (1983), the court treated a canine sniff by a well-trained narcotics-detection dog as sui generis because it 'discloses only the presence or absence of narcotics, a contraband item.' Id., at 707; see also Indianapolis v. Edmond, 531 U.S. 32, 40 (2000). Accordingly, the use of a well-trained narcotics-detection dog-one that 'does not expose noncontraband items that otherwise would remain hidden from public view,' Place, 462 U.S., at 707-during a lawful traffic stop, generally does not implicate legitimate privacy interests. In this case, the dog sniff was performed on the exterior of respondent’s car while he was lawfully seized for a traffic violation. Any intrusion on respondent’s privacy expectations does not rise to ...

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