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 Courts have recognized several exceptions to the exclusionary rule. Three of these exceptions involve the causal relationship between the unconstitutional act and the discovery of evidence. First, the independent source doctrine allows trial courts to admit evidence obtained in an unlawful search if officers independently acquired it from a separate, independent source. See Murray v. United States, 487 U. S. 533, 537, 108 S. Ct. 2529, 101 L. Ed. 2d 472 (1988). Second, the inevitable discovery doctrine allows for the admission of evidence that would have been discovered even without the unconstitutional source. See Nix v. Williams, 467 U. S. 431, 443-444, 104 S. Ct. 2501, 81 L. Ed. 2d 377 (1984). Third, is the attenuation doctrine: Evidence is admissible when the connection between unconstitutional police conduct and the evidence is remote or has been interrupted by some intervening circumstance, so that “the interest protected by the constitutional guarantee that has been violated would not be served by suppression of the evidence obtained.” Hudson at 126 S. Ct. 2159, 165 L. Ed. 2d 56. 


The attenuation doctrine evaluates the causal link between the government’s unlawful act and the discovery of evidence, which often ...

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