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The principal inquiry in determining content neutrality is whether the government has adopted a regulation of speech 'without reference to the content of the regulated speech.' Ward v. Rock Against Racism, 491 U. S. 781, 791 (1989) (internal quotation marks omitted) (upholding noise regulations); R. A. 17: v. St. Paul, 505 U. S. 377, 386 (1992) ('The government may not regulate [speech] based on hostility or favoritism-towards the underlying message expressed'); see also Arkansas Writers' Project, Inc. v. Ragland, 481 U. S. 221, 230 (1987); Regan v. Time, Inc., 468 U. S. 641, 648649 (1984); Metromedia, Inc. v. San Diego, 453 U. S. 490, 514-515 (1981) (plurality opinion). A court must look to the government's purpose as the threshold consideration. The fact that the an injunction may cover people with a particular viewpoint does not itself render the injunction content or viewpoint based. See Boos v. Barry, 485 U. S. 312 (1988). Accordingly, an injunction that meets these standards does not demand the level of heightened scrutiny set forth in Perry Ed. Assn., 460 U. S., at 45.


There are obvious differences, however, between an injunction and a generally applicable ordinance. Ordinances represent ...

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