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 Pickering v. Board of Ed. of Township High School Dist. 205, Will Cty., 391 U. S. 563, 88 S. Ct. 1731, 20 L. Ed. 2d 811 (1968) and later cases in the same line concern the constitutionality of restrictions on speech by public employees. Under those cases, employee speech is unprotected if it is not on a matter of public concern (or is pursuant to an employee’s job duties), but speech on matters of public concern may be restricted only if “the interest of the state, as an employer, in promoting the efficiency of the public services it performs through its employees” outweighs “the interests of the [employee], as a citizen, in commenting upon matters of public concern.” 391 U. S., at 568, 88 S. Ct. 1731, 20 L. Ed. 2d 811. See also Borough of Duryea v. Guarnieri, 564 U. S. ___, 131 S. Ct. 2488, 2493, 180 L. Ed. 2d 408, 420 (2011); Garcetti v. Ceballos, 547 U. S. 410, 126 S. Ct. 1951, 164 L. Ed. 2d 689 (2006); Waters v. Churchill, 511 U. S. 661, 674, 114 S. Ct. 1878, 128 L. Ed. 2d 686 (1994) (plurality opinion); Connick v. Myers, 461 ...

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