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See also Preemption doctrine.  Federal law governs questions involving the rights of the United States arising under nationwide federal programs. As the Court explained in Clearfield Trust Co. v. United States, 318 U. S. 363, 366-367 (1943): 'When the United States disburses its funds or pays its debts, it is exercising a constitutional function or power. . . . The authority [to do so] had its origin in the Constitution and the statutes of the United States, and was in no way dependent on the laws [of any State]. The duties imposed upon the United States and the rights acquired by it . . . find their roots in the same federal sources. In absence of an applicable Act of Congress, it is for the federal courts to fashion the governing rule of law according to their own standards.' (Citations and footnote omitted.)

See United States v. Standard Oil Co., 332 U. S. 301, 332 U. S. 305-306 (1947); United States v. Seckiner, 397 U. S. 203, 397 U. S. 209-210 (1970); Friendly, In Praise of Erie -- And of the New Federal Common Law, 39 N.Y.U.L.Rev. 383, 410 (1961); see also Sola Electric Co. v. ...

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