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To meet the requirement that the protected interest 'is in jeopardy in the lawsuit.' Brody, 957 F.2d at 1122 an applicant 'must demonstrate that [its] legal interests may be affected or impaired[] as a practical matter by the disposition of the action.' Id. (citation omitted). However, '[i]t is not sufficient that the claim be incidentally affected; rather, there must be a tangible threat to the applicant's legal interest.' Id. at 1123 (internal quotation marks and citation omitted). Because the focus is on the 'practical consequences' of the litigation, a court 'may consider any significant legal effect on the applicant's interest,' including a decision's stare decisis effect or a proposed remedy's impact on the applicant for intervention. Id. at 1122-23 (citation omitted). There is a 'policy preference which, as a matter of judicial economy, favors intervention over subsequent collateral attacks.' Kleissler, 157 F.3d at 970 (citation omitted). 

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