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Rule 20(a) imposes two specific requisites for the joinder of parties: (1) a right to relief must be asserted by, or against, each plaintiff or defendant relating to or arising out of the same transaction or occurrence; and (2) some question of law or fact common to all the parties will arise in the action. League to Save Tahoe v. Tahoe Reg. Plan Agency, 558 F.2d 914, 917 (9th Cir.1977); see also 7 C. Wright & A. Miller, Federal Practice and Procedure: Civil, § 1653 (1972). Joinder is to be construed liberally 'in order to promote trial convenience and to expedite the final determination of disputes, thereby preventing multiple lawsuits.' Id. Moreover, under the federal rules 'the impulse is toward the broadest possible scope of action consistent with fairness to the parties; joinder of claims, parties and remedies is strongly encouraged.' United Mine Workers of America v. Gibbs, 383 U.S. 715, 724, 86 S. Ct. 1130, 1138, 16 L. Ed. 2d 218 (1966).


When there is no showing that the plaintiff seeks to join the additional defendants solely to effectuate a remand, 'in the exercise of . . . . sound discretion the court may ...

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