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 Rule 16(f) states that for violation of a pretrial order a judge may order sanctions as provided in Fed. R. Civ. P. 37(b)(2)(C). Rule 37(b)(2)(C) provides for the sanction of dismissal. Fed. R. Civ. P. 41(b) enables a court to order dismissal 'for failure of the plaintiff . . . to comply with . . . any order of [the] court. . . .' The standards governing dismissal for failure to obey a court order are basically the same under either of these rules. See Price v. McGlathery, 792 F.2d 472, 474 (5th Cir. 1986).


A district court's dismissal of a case with prejudice is reviewed for abuse of discretion. Thompson v. Housing Authority, 782 F.2d 829, 832 (9th Cir.), cert. denied, 479 U.S. 829, 107 S. Ct. 112, 93 L. Ed. 2d 60 (1986). 'Dismissal is a harsh penalty and is to be imposed only in extreme circumstances.' Henderson v. Duncan, 779 F.2d 1421, 1423 (9th Cir. 1986). Nevertheless, we will overturn a dismissal sanction only if we have a definite and firm conviction that it was clearly outside the acceptable range of sanctions. Chism v. National Heritage Life Insurance Co., ...

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