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 Rule 16, Fed.R.Civ.P., states in relevant part: The court shall make an order which recites the action taken at the (pretrial) conference … and the agreements made by the parties as to any of the matters considered, and which limits the issues for trial to those not disposed of by admissions or agreements of counsel; and such order when entered controls the subsequent course of the action, unless modified at the trial to prevent manifest injustice. 

Pretrial orders play a crucial role in implementing the purposes of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure 'to secure the just, speedy, and inexpensive determination of every action.' F.R.Civ.P. 1. Unless pretrial orders are honored and enforced, the objectives of the pretrial conference to simplify issues and avoid unnecessary proof by obtaining admissions of fact will be jeopardized if not entirely nullified. 

Accordingly, a party need offer no proof at trial as to matters agreed to in the order, nor may a party offer evidence or advance theories at the trial which are not included in the order or which contradict its terms. See 3 Moore's Federal Practice P 16.19, pp. 16-42 to 16-46; 6 Wright & ...

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