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Motion to Dismiss. A court may not dismiss a complaint for failure to state a claim 'unless it appears beyond doubt that the plaintiff can prove no set of facts in support of his claims which would entitle him to relief.' Barnett v. Centoni, 31 F.3d 813, 813 (9th Cir. 1994) (citing Buckley v. County of L.A., 957 F.2d 652 at 654 (9th Cir. 1992)); see Conley v. Gibson, 355 U.S. 41, 47, 2 L. Ed. 2d 80, 78 S. Ct. 99 (1957); Parks Sch. of Bus., Inc. v. Symington, 51 F.3d 1480, 1484 (9th Cir. 1995); W. Mining Council v. Watt, 643 F.2d 618, 624 (9th Cir. 1981). 'The federal rules require only a 'short and plain statement of the claim showing that the pleader is entitled to relief.'' Gilligan v. Jamco Dev. Corp., 108 F.3d 246, 248 (9th Cir. 1997) (quoting Fed. R. Civ. P. 8(a)). 'The Rule 8 standard contains a powerful presumption against rejecting pleadings for failure to state a claim.' 108 F.3d at 249 (quotation marks omitted). 'All that is required are sufficient allegations to put defendants fairly on notice of the claims against them.' McKeever v. Block, 932 F.2d ...

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