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See Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer, 343 U. S. 579 (1952). Justice Black's opinion for the Court in that case, involving the validity of President Truman's effort to seize the country's steel mills in the wake of a nationwide strike, recognized that '[t]he President's power, if any, to issue the order must stem either from an act of Congress or from the Constitution itself.' Id. at 343 U. S. 585. Justice Jackson's concurring opinion elaborated in a general way the consequences of different types of interaction between the two democratic branches in assessing Presidential authority to act in any given case. When the President acts pursuant to an express or implied authorization from Congress, he exercises not only his powers but also those delegated by Congress. In such a case, the executive action 'would be supported by the strongest of presumptions and the widest latitude of judicial interpretation, and the burden of persuasion would rest heavily upon any who might attack it.' Id. at 343 U. S. 637. When the President acts in the absence of congressional authorization, he may enter 'a zone of twilight in which he and Congress may have concurrent authority, ...

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