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The enumerated powers of the President are found in the U.S. Constitution, art. II, § 2; The power to execute and enforce the laws. State executive powers are found in state constitutions and reside in governors. Such powers are also vested in executive officers of a county, town, municipality, or other political subdivision. The power to administer and enforce the laws.

Throughout the history of our Nation's existence under the Constitution, this subject has generated considerable debate. We have had the benefit of commentators such a John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison writing in The Federalist Paper at the Nation's very inception, the benefit of astute foreign observers of our system such as Alexis de Tocqueville and James Bryce writing during the first century of the Nation's existence, and the benefit of many other treatises, as well as more than 400 volumes of reports of decisions of this Court. As these writings reveal, it is doubtless both futile and perhaps dangerous to find any epigrammatical explanation of how this country has been governed. Indeed, as Justice Jackson noted, '[a] judge . . . may be surprised at the poverty of really useful and unambiguous authority applicable to ...

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