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Some matters need not be proved because they are common knowledge. If the facts are common knowledge, the trial court can take notice of those facts and instruct the jurors in the case to consider them to be established in the case. No further proof is needed. There is a split regarding whether judicial notice constitutes evidence. Some courts allow the noticed fact to be disputed and refused by the jury. Most courts hold that once a fact is judicially noticed, contrary evidence is precluded.

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