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Legislative authority is routinely delegated to the Executive Branch, to the independent regulatory agencies, and to private individuals and groups. 'The rise of administrative bodies probably has been the most significant legal trend of the last century. . . . They have become a veritable fourth branch of the Government, which has deranged our three-branch legal theories. . . .' FTC v. Ruberoid Co., 343 U. S. 470, 343 U. S. 487 (1952) (Jackson, J. dissenting).

The Court's decisions sanctioning such delegations make clear that Art. I does not require all action with the effect of legislation to be passed as a law.

Theoretically, agencies and officials were asked only to 'fill up the details,' and the rule was that 'Congress cannot delegate any part of its legislative power except under the limitation of a prescribed standard.' United States v. Chicago, M., St. P. & P. R. Co., 282 U. S. 311, 282 U. S. 324 (1931). Chief Justice Taft elaborated the standard in J. W. Hampton & Co. v. United States, 276 U. S. 394, 276 U. S. 409 (1928): 'If Congress shall lay down by legislative act an intelligible principle to which ...

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