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See also Hearsay (testimonial hearsay). The Confrontation Clause of the Sixth Amendment provides: 'In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right ... to be confronted with the witnesses against him.' In Crawford v. Washington, 541 U. S. 36, 53-54 (2004), the Court held that this provision bars 'admission of testimonial statements of a witness who did not appear at trial unless he was unavailable to testify, and the defendant had had a prior opportunity for cross-examination.' A critical portion of this holding, is the phrase 'testimonial statements.' Only statements of this sort cause the declarant to be a 'witness' within the meaning of the Confrontation Clause. See id., at 51. It is the testimonial character of the statement that separates it from other hearsay that, while subject to traditional limitations upon hearsay evidence, is not subject to the Confrontation Clause. The opinion in Crawford set forth 'various formulations' of the core class of ' 'testimonial' ' statements, ibid., but found it unnecessary to endorse any of them, because 'some statements qualify under any definition,' id., at 52. Among those, it said, were 'statements taken by police officers in the course of interrogations,' ibid.; ...

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