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The Confrontation Clause provides two types of protections for a criminal defendant: the right physically to face those who testify against him and the right to conduct cross-examination. Delaware v. Fensterer, 474 U. S. 15, 474 U. S. 18-19 (1985) (per curiam). The Supreme Court has refused to transform the Confrontation Clause into a constitutionally compelled rule of pretrial discovery. Nothing in the case law supports such a view. The opinions of the Court show that the right to confrontation is a trial right, designed to prevent improper restrictions on the types of questions that defense counsel may ask during cross-examination. See California v. Green, 399 U. S. 149, 399 U. S. 157 (1970) ('[I]t is this literal right to confront' the witness at the time of trial that forms the core of the values furthered by the Confrontation Clause'); Barber v. Page, 390 U. S. 719, 390 U. S. 725 (1968) ('The right to confrontation is basically a trial right'). The ability to question adverse witnesses, however, does not include the power to require the pretrial disclosure of any and all information that might be useful in contradicting unfavorable testimony.


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