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In Bruton v. United States, 391 U. S. 123 (1968), the court held that a defendant is deprived of his rights under the Confrontation Clause when his codefendant's incriminating confession is introduced at their joint trial, even if the jury is instructed to consider that confession only against the codefendant. In Parker v. Randolph, 442 U. S. 62 (1979), the court considered, but were unable authoritatively to resolve, the question whether Bruton applies where the defendant's own confession, corroborating that of his codefendant, is introduced against him. 

The Confrontation Clause of the Sixth Amendment guarantees the right of a criminal defendant 'to be confronted with the witnesses against him.' We have held that that guarantee, extended against the States by the Fourteenth Amendment, includes the right to cross-examine witnesses. See Pointer v. Texas, 380 U. S. 400, 380 U. S. 404 (1965). Where two or more defendants are tried jointly, therefore, the pretrial confession of one of them that implicates the others is not admissible against the others unless the confessing defendant waives his Fifth Amendment rights, so as to permit cross-examination.

Ordinarily, a witness is considered to be a witness 'against' a ...

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