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 The constitutional requirement of just compensation cannot be reduced to a formula or expressed in inexorable rules. See United States v. Toronto, Hamilton & Buffalo Navigation Co., 338 U.S. 396, 402, 70 S. Ct. 217, 94 L. Ed. 195, 115 Ct. Cl. 835 (1949) ('Perhaps no warning has been more repeated than that the determination of value cannot be reduced to inexorable rules.'); United States v. Cors, 337 U.S. 325, 332, 69 S. Ct. 1086, 93 L. Ed. 1392, 113 Ct. Cl. 692 (1949) ('The Court in its construction of the constitutional provision has been careful not to reduce the concept of 'just compensation' to a formula.'). The requirement of just compensation 'derives as much content from the basic equitable principles of fairness, as it does from technical concepts of property law.' United States v. Fuller, 409 U.S. 488, 490, 93 S. Ct. 801, 35 L. Ed. 2d 16 (1973) (internal citation omitted). Courts have determined just compensation according to practical rules that work substantial justice in the ordinary case but may be subject to exception when warranted by the circumstances. Cors, 337 U.S. at 332 ('The Court in an endeavor to find working rules ...

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