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Article I, § 8, cl. 3, confers upon Congress the power '[t]o regulate Commerce . . . among the several States' and Clause 18 of the same Article grants it the power '[t]o make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers. . . .' This grant, as pointed out in Heart of Atlanta Motel, 'extends to those activities intrastate which so affect interstate commerce, or the exertion of the power of Congress over it, as to make regulation of them appropriate means to the attainment of a legitimate end, the effective execution of the granted power to regulate interstate commerce.' United States v. Wrightwood Dairy Co., 315 U. S. 110, 315 U. S. 119 (1942). 


In order to constitute a proper exercise of Congress' power over intrastate activities that 'substantially affect' interstate commerce, it is not necessary that each individual instance of the activity substantially affect commerce; it is enough that, taken in the aggregate, the class of activities in question has such an effect. Perez v. United States, 402 U. S. 146 (1971) (noting that it is the 'class' of regulated activities, not the individual instance, ...

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