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Modern Commerce Clause jurisprudence has 'identified three broad categories of activity that Congress may regulate under its commerce power.' 514 U. S., at 558 (citing Hodel v. Virginia Surface Mining & Reclamation Assn., Inc., 452 U. S. 264, 276-277 (1981); Perez v. United States, 402 U. S. 146, 150 (1971)). 'First, Congress may regulate the use of the channels of interstate commerce.' 514 U. S., at 558 (citing Heart of Atlanta Motel, Inc. v. United States, 379 U. S. 241, 256 (1964); United States v. Darby, 312 U. S. 100, 114 (1941)). 'Second, Congress is empowered to regulate and protect the instrumentalities of interstate commerce, or persons or things in interstate commerce, even though the threat may come only from intrastate activities.' 514 U. S., at 558 (citing Shreveport Rate Cases, 234 U. S. 342 (1914); Southern R. Co. v. United States, 222 U. S. 20 (1911); Perez, supra, at 150). 'Finally, Congress' commerce authority includes the power to regulate those activities having a substantial relation to interstate commerce, ... i. e., those activities that substantially affect interstate commerce.' 514 U. S., at 558-559 (citing Jones & Laughlin Steel, supra, at 37). 

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