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See also Commerce Clause (negative) Although the Commerce Clause is by, its text, an affirmative grant of power to Congress to regulate interstate and foreign commerce, the Clause has long been recognized as a self-executing limitation on the power of the States to enact laws imposing substantial burdens on such commerce. See Lewis v. BT Investment Managers, Inc., 447 U. S. 27, 447 U. S. 35 (1980); Hughes v. Oklahoma, 441 U. S. 322, 441 U. S. 326 (1979); H. P. Hood & Sons, Inc. v. Du Mond, 336 U. S. 525, 336 U. S. 534-538 (1949); 53 U. S. 769 (1945). See also Sporhase v. Nebraska ex rel. Douglas, 458 U. S. 941, 458 U. S. 958-960 (1982); New England Power Co. v. New Hampshire, 455 U. S. 331 (1982); Western & Southern Life Insurance Co. v. State Board of Equalization, 451 U. S. 648, 451 U. S. 652-655 (1981); Prudential Insurance Co. v. Benjamin, 328 U. S. 408 (1946). 

The scope of the dormant Commerce Clause is a judicial creation. On its face, the Clause provides only that '[t]he Congress shall have Power ... To regulate Commerce ... among the several States ... ...

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