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U.S. Const, art. I, § 8, cl. 3, gives Congress the exclusive power to regulate commerce among the states, with foreign nations, and with Indian tribes. It is established beyond peradventure that the Commerce Clause of Art. I of the Constitution is a grant of plenary authority to Congress. That authority is, in the words of Mr. Chief Justice Marshall in 22 U. S. 196. When considering the validity of asserted applications of this power to wholly private activity, the Court has made it clear that, '[e]ven activity that is purely intrastate in character may be regulated by Congress where the activity, combined with like conduct by others similarly situated, affects commerce among the States or with foreign nations.' Fry v. United States, 421 U. S. 542, 421 U. S. 647 (1975). Congressional power over areas of private endeavor, even when its exercise may preempt express state law determinations contrary to the result which has commended itself to the collective wisdom of Congress, has been held to be limited only by the requirement that 'the means chosen by [Congress] must be reasonably adapted to the end permitted by the Constitution.' Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United ...

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