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Dan B. Dobbs, Dobbs Law of Remedies: Damages, Equity, Restitution § 8.6(3), at 493 (2d ed. 1993). Many states abrogating the collateral source rule by statute require the fact-finder or court to reduce the reasonable value of medical services by the amount of collateral source payments. See, e.g., Reid v. Williams, 964 P.2d 453 (Alaska 1998) (under terms of the statute, the circuit court makes a mandatory reduction of the award to reflect collateral source payments not provided by government program); Rudolph v. Iowa Methodist Med. Ctr., 293 N.W.2d 550 (Iowa 1980) (statute requires mandatory reduction in award to account for collateral source payments); Arneson v. Olson, 270 N.W.2d 125 (N.D. 1978) (statute requires mandatory reduction of award to reflect nonrefundable medical reimbursement benefits received less premiums paid over the five years prior to the medical malpractice). An Arizona statute that allows evidence of certain collateral source payments also allows the plaintiff to introduce evidence of expenses paid to secure the collateral source payments. The plaintiff may also introduce evidence of the collateral source provider's right to recovery against the plaintiff as reimbursement or under subrogation. The statute further provides that 'unless otherwise expressly permitted to ...

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