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The Law of Citations. A decree of Emperor Valentinian III listing Papinian, Paul, Gaius, Ulpian, and Modestinus as those writers who could be cited in court. A judge was bound to follow the majority view of the five. A judge was to use discretion only if the writers were equally divided and Papinian was silent on the issue. Papinian was always to be a tiebreaker. This decree became the lex de responsis prudentium. This law resolved judicial conflicts encompassing 1,300 years.

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