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 A sine qua non of aiding and abetting is guilty participation by the accused. Hicks v. United States, 150 U.S. 442, 449-451, 14 S.Ct. 144, 37 L.Ed. 1137 (1893); Long v. United States, 124 U. S.App.D.C. 14, 20-21, 360 F.2d 829, 835-836 (1966); Stevens v. United States, 115 U.S.App.D.C. 332, 334, 319 F.2d 733, 735 (1963); Kemp v. United States, 114 U.S.App.D.C. 88, 89, 311 F.2d 774, 775 (1962); United States v. Carengella, 198 F.2d 3, 7 (7th Cir.), cert. denied 344 U.S. 881, 73 S.Ct. 179, 97 L.Ed. 682 (1952); Johnson v. United States, 195 F.2d 673, 675-676 (8th Cir. 1952). 'In order to aid and abet another to commit a crime it is necessary that a defendant `in some sort associate himself with the venture, that he participate in it as in something that he wishes to bring about, that he seek by his action to make it succeed.'' Nye & Nissen v. United States 336 U.S. at 619, 69 S.Ct. at 769, quoting United States v. Peoni, 100 F.2d 401, 402 (2d Cir. 1938). 


Judge Hand's statement in United States v. Peoni, 100 F.2d 401, 402 (2d Cir. 1938), ...

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