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 An aider and abettor is one who acts “with knowledge of the criminal purpose of the perpetrator and with an intent or purpose either of committing, or of encouraging or facilitating commission of, the offense.” (People v. Beeman (1984) 35 Cal.3d 547, 560 [199 Cal. Rptr. 60, 674 P.2d 1318].) “‘A person who knowingly aids and abets criminal conduct is guilty of not only the intended crime [target offense] but also of any other crime the perpetrator actually commits [nontarget offense] that is a natural and probable consequence of the intended crime.’ ” (People v. Medina (2009) 46 Cal.4th 913, 920 [95 Cal. Rptr. 3d 202, 209 P.3d 105] (Medina), citing People v. Prettyman (1996) 14 Cal.4th 248, 260-262 [58 Cal. Rptr. 2d 827, 926 P.2d 1013] (Prettyman).) “Thus, for example, if a person aids and abets only an intended assault, but a murder results, that person may be guilty of that murder, even if unintended, if it is a natural and probable consequence of the intended assault.” (McCoy, supra, 25 Cal.4th at p. 1117.)


A nontarget offense is a “‘natural and probable consequence’” of the target offense if, judged objectively, the additional offense ...

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