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'The admission of tape recordings is `within the sound discretion of the trial court and will not be reversed unless there has been an abuse of that discretion.'' United States v. Webster, 84 F.3d 1056, 1064 (8th Cir.1996) (quoting United States v. Martinez, 951 F.2d 887, 888 (8th Cir.1991) (internal marks omitted)).Several nonexclusive factors should be considered when determining the admissibility of tape-recorded conversations. United States v. McMillan, 508 F.2d 101, 104 (8th Cir.1974), cert. denied, 421 U.S. 916, 95 S.Ct. 1577, 43 L.Ed.2d 782 (1975). They include (1) That the recording device was capable of taking the conversation now offered in evidence. (2) That the operator of the device was competent to operate the device. (3) That the recording is authentic and correct. (4) That changes, additions or deletions have not been made in the recording. (5) That the recording has been preserved in a manner that is shown to the court. (6) That the speakers are identified. (7) That the conversation elicited was made voluntarily and in good faith, without any kind of inducement. Id.

 

These factors are useful to determine if a 'tape's `substance and the circumstances under which it was ...

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