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The standard of negligence laid down by Judge Hand in the famous admiralty case of United States v. Carroll Towing Co., 159 F.2d 169, 173 (2d Cir.1947), endorsed as the proper admiralty standard in United States Fidelity & Guaranty Co. v. Jadranska Slobodna Plovidba, 683 F.2d 1022 (7th Cir.1982), and cited approvingly by other courts in admiralty cases, as well. E.g., In re Complaint of Paducah Towing Co., 692 F.2d 412, 422 n. 18 (6th Cir.1982); Louisiana ex rel. Guste v. M/V Testbank, 564 F.Supp. 729, 740-41 (E.D.La.1983); Pruitt v. Allied Chemical Corp., 523 F.Supp. 975, 978 n. 11 (E.D.Va.1981); Selame Associates, Inc. v. Holiday Inns, Inc., 451 F.Supp. 412, 419 (D.Mass.1978); cf. East River S.S. Corp. v. Transamerica Delaval Inc., 476 U.S. 858, 872 (1986); Andros Shipping Co. v. Panama Canal Co., 298 F.2d 720, 726 (5th Cir. 1962) is as follows: A defendant is negligent if the burden (cost) of the precautions that he could have taken to avoid the accident (B in Hand's formula) is less than the loss that the accident could reasonably be anticipated to cause (L), discounted (i.e., multiplied) by the probability that the accident would occur unless ...

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