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The Administrative Procedure Act requires an agency conducting notice-and-comment rulemaking to publish in its notice of proposed rulemaking “either the terms or substance of the proposed rule or a description of the subjects and issues involved.” 5 U. S. C. §553(b)(3). The Courts of Appeals have generally interpreted this to mean that the final rule the agency adopts must be “a ‘logical outgrowth’ of the rule proposed.” National Black Media Coalition v. FCC, 791 F. 2d 1016, 1022 (CA2 1986). See also, e.g., United Steelworkers of America, AFL-CIO-CLC v. Marshall, 647 F. 2d 1189, 1221 (CADC 1980), cert. denied sub nom. Lead Industries Assn., Inc. v. Donovan, 453 U. S. 913 (1981); South Terminal Corp. v. EPA, 504 F. 2d 646, 659 (CA1 1974). The object, in short, is one of fair notice. 

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