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 The competitor standing doctrine recognizes 'parties suffer constitutional injury in fact when agencies lift regulatory restrictions on their competitors or otherwise allow increased competition.' La. Energy and Power Auth. v. FERC, 141 F.3d 364, 367, 329 U.S. App. D.C. 400, 329 U.S. App. D.C. 401 (D.C. Cir. 1998); see also Sherley v. Sebelius, 610 F.3d 69, 72-73, 391 U.S. App. D.C. 258 (D.C. Cir. 2010). In an analogous case involving foreign labor, the Ninth Circuit held an American workers' union had standing to challenge an Immigration and Naturalization Service decision permitting Canadian crane operators to work in the United States without completing the usual foreign labor certification procedure. Int'l Longshoremen's & Warehousemen's Union v. Meese, 891 F.2d 1374, 1376, 1379 (9th Cir. 1989). The court held the union suffered injury in fact because the agency's action caused union members increased competition for jobs in their industry. Id. at 1379. See also Int'l Union of Bricklayers & Allied Craftsmen v. Meese, 761 F.2d 798, 802-03, 245 U.S. App. D.C. 395 (D.C. Cir. 1985) ('In this instance, the injury of which appellants complain is not abstract. On the contrary, they allege . . . the INS ...

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