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It is sufficiently clear from cases that those with substantial pecuniary interest in legal proceedings should not adjudicate these disputes. Tumey v. Ohio, 273 U.S. 510 (1927) and Ward v. Village of Monroeville, 409 U.S. 57 (1972), indicates that the financial stake need not be as direct or positive as it appeared to be in Tumey. It has also come to be the prevailing view that '[m]ost of the law concerning disqualification because of interest applies with equal force to . . . administrative adjudicators.' K. Davis, Administrative Law Text 12.04, p. 250 (1972), and cases cited.  

The APA contains a number of provisions designed to safeguard the decisional independence of ALJs. See generally, Butz v. Economou, 438 U.S. 478, 513-14, 57 L. Ed. 2d 895, 98 S. Ct. 2894 (1978); Ramspeck v. Federal Trial Examiners Conference, 345 U.S. 128, 132, 97 L. Ed. 872, 73 S. Ct. 570 (1953); Nash v. Califano, 613 F.2d 10, 15-16 (2d Cir. 1980). Although employees of the selecting agency, ALJs are entitled to pay prescribed by the Office of Personnel Management independently of agency recommendations or ratings. 5 U.S.C. § 5372 (1982), 5 U.S.C. § ...

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