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 A 'fair trial in a fair tribunal is a basic requirement of due process.' In re Murchison, 349 U. S. 133, 349 U. S. 136 (1955). This applies to administrative agencies which adjudicate as well as to courts. Gibson v. Berryhill, 411 U. S. 564, 411 U. S. 579 (1973). Not only is a biased decisionmaker constitutionally unacceptable, but 'our system of law has always endeavored to prevent even the probability of unfairness.' In re Murchison, supra at 349 U. S. 136; cf. Tumey v. Ohio, 273 U. S. 510, 273 U. S. 532 (1927). In pursuit of this end, various situations have been identified in which experience teaches that the probability of actual bias on the part of the judge or decisionmaker is too high to be constitutionally tolerable. Among these cases are those in which the adjudicator has a pecuniary interest in the outcome, [and in which he has been the target of personal abuse or criticism from the party before him. Gibson v. Berryhill, 411 U.S. at 411 U. S. 579; Ward v. Village of Monroeville, 409 U. S. 57 (1972); Tumey v. Ohio, 273 U. S. 510 (1927). Cf. Commonwealth ...

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