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There is a strong debate on whether it is the plain meaning of the words used in the statute or the canons of statutory construction alone which must determine if Congress has spoken with a clear voice in order to defer to agency interpretations of statutes. A threshold issue is the appropriate framework for analyzing the FDA's assertion of authority to regulate tobacco products. Because this case involves an administrative agency's construction of a statute that it administers, our analysis is governed by Chevron U. S. A. Inc. v. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc., 467 U. S. 837 (1984). Under Chevron, a reviewing court must first ask 'whether Congress has directly spoken to the precise question at issue.' Id., at 842. If Congress has done so, the inquiry is at an end; the court 'must give effect to the unambiguously expressed intent of Congress.' Id., at 843; see also United States v. Haggar Apparel Co., 526 U. S. 380, 392 (1999); Holly Farms Corp. v. NLRB, 517 U. S. 392, 398 (1996). But if Congress has not specifically addressed the question, a reviewing court must respect the agency's construction of the statute so long as ...

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