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There is a strong presumption that Congress intends judicial review of administrative action. From the beginning, 'our cases [have established] that judicial review of a final agency action by an aggrieved person will not be cut off unless there is persuasive reason to believe that such was the purpose of Congress.' Abbott Laboratories v. Gardner, 387 U. S. 136, 387 U. S. 140 (1967) (citing cases). See generally L. Jaffe, Judicial Control of Administrative Action 339-353 (1965). In Marbury v. Madison, 1 Cranch 137, 5 U. S. 163 (1803), a case itself involving review of executive action, Chief Justice Marshall insisted that '[t]he very essence of civil liberty certainly consists in the right of every individual to claim the protection of the laws.' Later, in the lesser known but nonetheless important case of United States v. Nourse, 9 Pet. 8, 34 U. S. 28-29 (1835), the Chief Justice noted the traditional observance of this right and laid the foundation for the modern presumption of judicial review: 'It would excite some surprise if, in a government of laws and of principle, furnished with a department whose appropriate duty it is to decide questions of right, not only ...

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