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 Article III, § 1, establishes a broad policy that federal judicial power shall be vested in courts whose judges enjoy life tenure and fixed compensation. These requirements protect the role of the independent judiciary within the constitutional scheme of tripartite government and assure impartial adjudication in federal courts. United States v. Will, 449 U.S. 200, 217-218 (1980); Buckley v. Valeo, 424 U.S. 1, 122 (1976) (per curiam).


'Neither this Court nor Congress has read the Constitution as requiring every federal question arising under the federal law . . . to be tried in an Art. III court before a judge enjoying life tenure and protection against salary reduction.' Palmore v. United States, 411 U.S. 389, 407 (1973). Instead, the Court has long recognized that Congress is not barred from acting pursuant to its powers under Article I to vest decisionmaking authority in tribunals that lack the attributes of Article III courts. See, e. g., Walters v. National Assn. of Radiation Survivors, ante, p. 305 (Board of Veterans' Appeals); Palmore v. United States, supra (District of Columbia courts); Crowell v. Benson, 285 U.S. 22 (1932) (Deputy Commissioner of Employees' Compensation Commission); Murray's Lessee ...

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