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Latin. Penal actions, or actions having penal conclusions. Under these actions the pursuer not only sought for the fulfillment of some obligation incumbent on the defender, but also for a pecuniary penalty, on account of its nonfulfillment. The .action competent against a vicious intromitter, was of this class, as he was bound not only to make good to a just claimant, what he had acquired though his intromission, but was bound for the whole debts of the deceased, with whose effects he had intromitted, even where these were not of value equivalent to the debt. The same action is applicable in our law to the recovery of violent profits from a possessor in mala fide. 

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