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(Civil law) An action founded upon a contract of pledge. This arose out of the contract of pledge, and was either directa or contraria. The action directa was at the instance of the debtor who had pledged the subject, against the creditor with whom it was pledged, to compel restoration of the pledge after the debt was discharged in security for which it had been given; or, to compel the creditor to pay over the balance in his hands after deduction of his debt, if in virtue of his right he had sold the pledge. The action contraria was at the instance of the creditor, by which he could obtain reimbursement of any necessary expense he had been put to in preserving the pledge; or indemnification, where he had been dispossessed of the pledge, ' which might occur where the debtor had pledged something not his own. 

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