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The Model Penal Code employs an elements approach to substantive criminal law, which recognizes that a single offense definition may require different culpable mental states for each objective offense element. See § 2.02, Explanatory Note ('The requirement of culpability applies toeach `material element' of the crime.'). The MPC further narrows mens rea analysis by pruning from the lexicon a plethora of common-law culpability terms, leaving four core terms. See id. § 2.02(1) (indicating, subject to one express exception, that 'a person is not guilty of an offense unless he acted purposely, knowingly, recklessly or negligently, as the law may require'); see also Robinson & Grall, Element Analysis, 35 STAN. L.REV. at 692-93.


Conceptually, the MPC also recognizes three objective categories of offense elements-conduct, attendant circumstances, and result. See MODEL PENAL CODE § 2.02, cmt. 1, at 229. The Code frequently distinguishes among these offense-element categories in its various prescriptions regarding which of the four levels of culpability must be established for any given offense element. See generally id. at 229-30 ('The question of which level of culpability suffices to establish liability must be addressed separately with respect to each material element, and will be resolved either by ...

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