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The mirror-image rule historically has been strictly construed to forbid even minor variations between offer and acceptance. Many modern courts have relaxed the rule, holding that only an acceptance that differs materially from the terms of the original offer prevents contract formation. See, e.g., Raydon Exploration, Inc. v. Ladd, 902 F.2d 1496, 1500 (10th Cir. 1990) (Oklahoma law); Hoyt R. Matise Co. v. Zurn, 754 F.2d 560, 566 (5th Cir. 1985) (Texas law); Northwest Television Club v. Gross Seattle, Inc., 96 Wash. 2d 104, 634 P.2d 837, 840 (Wash. 1981), amended by 96 Wash. 2d 973, 640 P.2d 710 (Wash. 1981).


The corollary to this modern rule is that an immaterial variation in the acceptance does not impede contract formation. For instance, several courts have held that, under this exception, variations implied in the offer do not interfere with the completed contract. Northwest Television Club, 634 P.2d at 841-42; Karas v. Brogan, 55 Ohio St. 2d 128, 378 N.E.2d 470, 471 (Ohio 1978); Northwest Properties Agency, Inc. v. McGhee, 1 Wash. App. 305, 462 P.2d 249, 253 (Wash. Ct. App. 1969).


The Minnesota Supreme Court used the language of the immateriality exception in Markmann ...

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